The Future of Electric Vehicles in India: Opportunities and Challenges

 As one of the world’s largest automotive markets, India’s nationwide electrification will mark a turning point for both the world and the country itself. Driven by the Indian government’s push for sustainable mobility, growing consumer demand for new technologies, and the emergence of private players interested in EV technology, the future of electric vehicles in India looks promising.

However, the country continues to face several challenges in its pursuit of full EV adoption, namely the low number of charging stations and the high initial cost of EVs.

In this article, we will focus on the following two questions:

What is the state of India’s EV ecosystem?

What challenges and opportunities lie ahead?


The Indian EV market is on a rapid growth trajectory

India is one of the world’s largest two-wheeler and three-wheeler markets and ranks among the world’s top 5 passenger and commercial vehicle markets.

According to JMK Research, a staggering 455,733 EVs were sold in fiscal 2022. India’s Ministry of Road Transport and Highways also claimed that there were 1,334,385 electric vehicles on the roads in India as of July 2022.

These numbers are sure to increase, with central and state governments, as well as private sector players, actively pushing for more electrification on Indian roads.

India sets ambitious goals

According to Union Minister Nitin Gadkari, the Indian government intends to achieve the following mix of electric vehicles in India by 2030. To achieve these ambitious goals, the Indian government has created policies and programs such as the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP), a broad plan to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles in India. The aim is to reduce India’s dependence on oil.

The Government of India has also formulated a scheme for faster adoption and production of (hybrid and) electric vehicles (FAME). This plan should allow higher adoption rates in the coming years. India’s finance minister has also announced cuts in customs duties and taxes for Budget 2023. This will help boost domestic production of lithium-ion batteries that power electric vehicles.

Many state governments such as Assam, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat have also created attractive policies and programs to incentivize EV manufacturing in their respective territories.

As a result of these strategies, private players have started entering the EV market, paving the way for further adoption of electric vehicles in India. India’s success will also have a significant positive impact on the rest of the world.


Electric car adoption in India will be a global win

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), global electric car sales will double in 2021 from the previous year to 16.5 million electric car units sold worldwide. India has also announced that electric vehicles will account for at least 30% of all road traffic by 2023. Although a modest target, a 30% adoption rate will have global ripple effects, both environmentally and economically.

For starters, India is the world’s third largest importer of oil, but the shift to electric vehicles will significantly reduce its dependence on oil and disrupt global oil markets. If India can meet its ambitious adoption targets, it will create a model that other emerging economies can replicate. This will have further impacts on oil markets as dependence on this fossil fuel declines.

Moreover, with a population of 1.4 billion and a rapidly growing economy, India is sure to be an influential player in the global EV market today. The full adoption of electric vehicles in India will represent a significant step in the right direction towards the sustainable development of global mobility.


Environmental Opportunities for India

The shift to electric cars in India will have a significant impact on the environment. Currently, the transport sector in India is a major contributor to pollution. Take the capital New Delhi, for example, where two-wheelers and three-wheelers contribute 50% to surface PM 2.5 levels.

The transport sector in India also accounts for about one-fifth of the country’s total energy consumption. In light of these numbers, EVs can have a huge impact on India’s environment in the following areas.

1. Reduction of air pollution

In India alone, vehicular traffic contributes to 27% of total air pollution and causes 1.2 million deaths every year. Therefore, the introduction of EVs in India will significantly reduce the negative global environmental impacts of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles.

2. Reduction of noise pollution

Noise pollution is also a major challenge in India due to rapid urbanization increasing the need for vehicles. Five Indian cities are among the world’s noisiest cities, according to a 2022 UNEP report. Although vehicles are not the only source mentioned in the report, electric vehicles are likely to reduce noise levels because they do not have the mechanical valves, gears or fans common in ICE vehicles.

3. Improvement of operational efficiency

In terms of fuel efficiency, gasoline or diesel cars only convert 17 to 21% of stored energy, while electric cars can convert 60% of grid electricity. Clearly, this shift to electric vehicles in India can improve fuel efficiency and optimization. It will reduce operating costs for end-users, thereby increasing demand for EVs.

Apart from the environmental impacts mentioned above, the adoption of EVs in India will also bring many economic opportunities for the country.


Economic Opportunities for India

In addition to representing significant progress towards a cleaner and greener future, India’s full electrification at the local level will benefit businesses, investors and consumers alike. Below are some of the most compelling opportunities.

1. Fleet operators

Fleet operators like Amazon, DoorDash and BigBasket can reduce their operating costs by switching to EVs. According to, the total cost of ownership (TCO) for a two-wheeler in New Delhi is Rs 2/km when it runs on petrol. This cost comes down to Rs 0.52/km when switching to EVs. For fleet operators, operating costs are undoubtedly reduced by more than half. Maintenance costs will also be reduced.

However, the transition to electric cars is happening much more slowly compared to Brazil or the US. Electric vehicles in India are still at a disadvantage due to high initial costs, uncertain dealer value and lack of confidence in the new technology.

To address these concerns, the government provides tax incentives to reduce start-up costs. Meanwhile, companies at the forefront are providing robust and reliable charging solutions that will strengthen confidence in this new technology.

2. OEM

The electric vehicle industry provides huge opportunities for OEMs to produce cost-competitive automotive products for India and the rest of the world. Research shows that OEMs can produce 5.7% more added value for each EV by 2030. As a result, the Indian government is pushing for indigenization of the supply chain under the Atma Nirbhar plan to support OEMs in developing the EV ecosystem.

Additionally, companies in India are looking to help OEMs build a charging app using SDK development tools and provide access to features such as navigation, vehicle diagnostics and keyless entry. All these measures help OEMs to offer their drivers on-the-go charging and accelerate the transition to electric vehicles.

3. Real estate sector

Electric cars create many opportunities for real estate investors, real estate agents and real estate developers, as the industry requires the construction of electric car production units, industrial areas and charging stations. Another key aspect is the development of retail infrastructure around EV charging stations, as it takes an average of 15 to 20 minutes to charge an EV.

A Colliers report shows the EV industry will need 1,300 acres by 2030 to build capacity to produce 110 GWh of batteries. The country will also need 13.5 million square feet for charging stations by 2025. These numbers reflect the ample opportunities available to every player in the real estate space.

4. Consumers

India’s young and dynamic population is eager to embrace new technologies as the country experiences a growing trend of upward mobility. As individuals become wealthier, their socioeconomic status continues to improve and they are better positioned to purchase electric cars.

To meet the growing demand, the government and other innovative players in the Indian EV space are leading efforts to add more charging points to EV charging networks. This includes offering software solutions that make everyday charging accessible.

Several players are also partnering with businesses and government agencies to create innovative solutions that positively impact the EV industry and tap into India’s skilled talent pool. According to Nitin Gadkari, Union Minister of Road Transport and Highways, the electric vehicle industry is likely to create five million new jobs and India’s pool of young talent is well poised for this job growth.

Despite these many opportunities, the country still has significant challenges to address before achieving full adoption of electric vehicles.


Challenges for India

Realizing India’s EV potential is not without its challenges. The road to widespread EV adoption in India is slow and beset with hurdles to overcome. In the following sections, we explore the key challenges to EV adoption in India. We are also exploring possible solutions that can help the country overcome these barriers and enable faster and more efficient nationwide adoption of EVs.

1. Lack of clean energy

Much of India’s electricity is generated by burning coal. This means that relying on coal to generate power for all electric vehicles would defeat the purpose of reducing carbon emissions through EV adoption. This is why India is exploring other sources of energy like solar, wind and nuclear, as mentioned in Nitin Gadkari’s speech at the 7th edition of the ETAuto EV Conclave. The government is also actively pursuing research and development in biofuels to power EV production units.

These measures by the Indian government provide confidence and opportunities for private players to use innovation and technology to produce EVs faster and cheaper. This will in turn reduce the initial cost for end-users, leading to greater adoption of electric vehicles in India.

2. Insufficiently developed charging infrastructure

Infrastructure issues stand in the way of India’s push for full EV adoption. Electric cars require a different charging and maintenance infrastructure than traditional ICE vehicles due to differences in the engine and other working parts. However, India’s current charging infrastructure may not be enough to handle the increased demand for EVs.

At the time of writing, India has 934 charging stations, most of which are located in urban areas. By comparison, China had 1.8 million electric charging stations as of 2022. Building larger batteries and fast charging stations will mean investing in commercial-grade high-speed chargers. However, this requires significant capital investment.

The government is working with private players to boost the presence of charging stations. The Ministry of Energy provides many financial and non-financial incentives to build charging stations for electric cars. For example, the Ministry adopts a revenue-sharing model for land use and sets affordable fee rates for both operators and users.

In addition, private entities in this sector are working with municipal, state and central entities to help install EV stations and charging points. They are also working with operators to create a charging management system (CMS) to monitor the operation of these stations and streamline the entire charging process.

3. Suboptimal battery technology

The range of an electric car is limited, making it difficult for drivers to travel long distances without recharging. In addition to limited charging stations, battery capacity, aerodynamic drag and vehicle weight also exacerbate the problem. This is because current batteries are small and have low voltage, so they are not enough to increase EV propulsion and travel for longer distances.

To solve this problem, private players need to innovate to create batteries made of lightweight materials with higher energy density that use renewable resources for charging. The government provides the necessary impetus in the form of tax breaks.

The national government is also supporting battery manufacturing in India through the National Mission for Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage in 2019. It is also providing companies with the technical know-how and business environment to improve battery technology for electric vehicles.

4. Permanent resistance to change

Indian consumers still resist the adoption of EVs, despite their long-term economic and environmental benefits. This stems from a lack of EV awareness and a general reluctance to adopt new technologies, especially in rural areas.

However, players in the Indian market need to come together to address consumer concerns. They should also build a supportive ecosystem to support the widespread adoption of EVs in India. This can be achieved by developing more affordable electric cars, expanding charging infrastructure, and creating awareness and education programs that inform consumers about the benefits of switching to electric cars.


Smart digital solutions will be a key driver of the Indian EV ecosystem

The future of electric vehicles in India holds great promise and is poised for significant growth in the coming years. With supportive government policies, increasing consumer awareness and advances in EV technology, the country is well positioned to embrace this shift towards sustainable transport.

The growing demand for EVs is also leading to the expansion of charging infrastructure and the development of locally produced battery technologies. The automotive industry in India is also poised to play a major role in the global shift towards EVs, with the country having the potential to become a leader in this space.

Private companies are playing a key role in offering smart digital solutions that will contribute to infrastructure development while acting as a bridge between government agencies and end users. These companies’ initiatives will help fleet operators transition to EVs and OEMs to provide seamless driving experiences for their customers.

Collaboration with local governments will also help accelerate the construction of charging stations along with creating greater awareness among Indian customers. This will contribute to the rapid growth of the EV industry.

So it is up to both the public and private sectors to continue to work together to make India’s ambitious goals a reality. The right mix of innovation and investment has the potential to accelerate the adoption of electric vehicles in India, transform the country’s transport landscape and contribute to a cleaner and greener future.